The government of the Republic of Indonesia consists of 27 provinces.
Some of them have a status as the Special Region. Those are
the Capital Special Region of Jakarta as a capital of the country,
the Special Region of Aceh and the Special Region of Yogyakarta.
What is now called Special Region of Yogyakarta has come into
being continuing the administrations existing
back before the Republic of Indonesia was born as an independent
country. During the era of Dutch occupation there are two principalities
in this region namely the Kasultanan Yogyakarta (Yogyakarta
Sultanate) and the Kadipaten Pakualaman (Pakualaman Regency).
Dutch Colonial Government in the past respected and referred
to the authorities of those two principalities in carrying out
their autonomous self government, arranged under a political
contract. When the Indonesian independence was proclaimed the
ruler of both principalities, the Sultan of Yogyakarta and Prince
of Regent of Pakualaman declared a statement that Yogyakarta
Sultanate and Pakualaman Regency became part of the Republic
of Indonesia. Those two regions were unified to form the Special
Region of Yogyakarta and the Sultan of Yogyakarta to be the
Governor and the Prince of Regent of Pakualaman as the vice-governor,
both were responsible for the president of the Republic of Indonesia.
The special Region of Yogyakarta was formally formed after the
independence war ended and legalized with the Aug 3, 1950.
In carrying out the local government administration it considers
three principle those are decentralization, deconcentration
and the assistance task. The provincial Government carries out
the responsibilities and authorities of the Central Government,
on other hand
out its autonomous responsibilities and authorities. The Regional
Government consists of the Head of the Region and the Legislative
Assembly of the Region. Such construction guarantees good cooperation
between the Head of Region and the Legislative Assembly of Region
in order to achieve a sound regional government administration.
The Head of the Special Region of Yogyakarta has got responsibility
as the Head of the Territory and titled as a Governor.
The first Governor was the late HRH. Sultan Hamengku Buwono
IX, Sultan of Yogyakarta and continued by HRH. Paku Alam VIII
as the Acting Governor up to at present. Unlike the other Heads
of the Region Level in Indonesia the Governor of the Special
Region of Yogyakarta have got privilege or special status of
not being bound to the period of position nor the requirements
and way of appointment. However in carrying out their duties
they have got the same authorities and responsibilities.
The remains of Shivaite Hinduism civilization is the ruins of
an eldest Shivaite Hinduism Temple in Dieng Plateau with its
height more than 2000 meters above of the sea level and lies
about 125 kilometers northwest of Yogyakarta. The Cailendra
Dynasty continued to rule over Mataram Kingdom for more than
a Century with the religion
were adhered is Mahayana Buddhism. Towards the middle of the
8th Century the Buddhist Ceilendra Dynasty brought the Central
Java under their influence but without completely subjugating
the Shivaite Hindu Sanjaya Dynasty. In the era of Cailendra
Dynasty the civilization was in a good progress. The amazing
fact is that more than one religion as well as religious sects
could get along well with each other and a variety of societies
live side by side in harmony.
Shiva and Buddha seem indeed to have been regarded by their
adherents as manifestations of one and the same spiritual being.
Both Shivaite Hinduism and Mahayana Buddhism were practiced
but there were essentially court religions and only very slowly
did their influence seep down into village life. The period
of intensive Hindu-Buddhist influences in Central and East Java
extended from 8th - 15th Century. The massive Borobudur monument
(40 kilometers northwest Yogyakarta) and the magnificent Prambanan
Temple Complex (18 kilometers east of Yogyakarta) was constructed
during the period of 8th - 9th Century AD by both dynasties.
It is interesting to note that those temple surroundings of
Prambanan Temple complex belongs to the sacred place of two
religious Hinduism and Buddhism. During the 10th Century the
capital of Mataram Kingdom shifted from Central Java to East
Java. Late in the 13th Century the Majapahit Kingdom was founded
which was centered
East Java. The capital of the Kingdom lies nearby Mojokerto
and the ruins of the palace has been found within Trowulan district
area The Majapahit Kingdom reached the golden age of its power
and glory under the powerful leadership of its Prime Minister
Gadjah Mada, during the 14th Century. In this era the territory
of Majapahit realm extended over Central and East Java, Madura,
Bali, Sumatra, Singapore and even to parts of Asia. The trade
has grown rapidly and a quite number of foreign traders came
and established footholds on the harbor cities and trade centers
within this realm.
Those traders, particularly Arab and Indians mostly Moslem beside
of merchandise they also brought Islam as a new religion and
gradually began spreading in Java and other islands of the Indonesian
archipelago. In the late of 15th Century due to the civil war
and aristocratic elite conflicts in along term Majapahit became
weaker and disappeared early in the 16th Century. After the
fall of Majapahit, the era of Moslem began with the emergence
of the Demak Kingdom. The Kingdom established control over Central
Java. The Moslem religion at that time had been accepted by
the aristocrat and a large section of the population in Central
Demak Kingdom as the first Islamic realm was continued by Pajang
and finally the Mataram Kingdom. Mataram was founded by Sutawijaya,
known as Panembahan Senopati, in the late 16th Century, precisely
in 1586 AD. This realm lies in the Southern part of Central
Java with its capital near Yogyakarta. The greatest Monarch
Agung who reigned from 1613 - 1645. In this era the Mataram
Kingdom reached the golden age of its power and at one time
was powerful enough to threaten the Dutch militarily in Batavia.
Sultan Agung ordered the army to chase away the Dutch from Java
in 1628 and 1629 because some of reasons his struggle failed.
During the glorious era of Sultan Agung, the Mataram territory
extended considerably throughout Central Java, East Java, Kalimantan
Island and part of West Java. After Sultan Agung passed away
in 1645, Mataram gradually lost its power and was under pressured
of the Dutch. In the Mataram Kingdom, as elsewhere, the Dutch
cleverly applied the principle of "devide et empera". In this
case the Dutch always became the third party and tried to take
advantages the disputes. In the middle of 18th Century, the
Mataram Kingdom was under controlled by the Dutch's military
support to keep order his kingdom
small enclave within the Sultanate of Yogyakarta was declared
as a self-governing principality and took the name of Kadipaten
Pakualaman. Prince Notokusumo, a brother of Sultan, had been
crowned as the first ruler the title has used was KGPAA Paku
Alam I. Since 1816 the former Mataram Kingdom was thus split
up into four self governing principalities, these are Kasultanan
Yogyakarta, Kasultanan Surakarta, Kadipaten Mangkunegaran, and
Kadipaten Pakualaman. During 1942 -1945 Java was under controlled
of the Javanese regime and they also aided unwittingly the Sultan
of Yogyakarta in his effort to transform the feudal state he
had inherited. In showing their favor to the Indonesian people,
the Japanese released the national leaders who had been exiled
by the Dutch. The national leaders began organizing the country
for eventual independence.
On August 17, 1945 Sukarno and Hatta on behalf of the Indonesian
people proclaimed the Independence of the Republic of Indonesia.
The Sultan of Yogyakarta was one of the first Indonesian leaders
to rally to the cause of the Republic and offered his support
to the national leaders. Soon became clear that they would not
be able to hold Jakarta. In 1946 Yogyakarta became the capital
city of the Indonesia Republic. Therefore this city became known
as the capital of the revolution. Because it was the center
of the revolutionary, Yogyakarta is still regarded as having
a special place in the history of Indonesia. In recognition
of the loyalty and support given by Sultan of Yogyakarta of
succeed the struggle of independence, Yogyakarta was made a
Special Region within the Indonesian Republic with a provincial
status and the Sultan was positioned as the Governor of the
province. It is indeed the only former principality to have
received this privilege.
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